NONHUMAN PRIMATE ANIMAL MODEL FOR PERIODONTAL RESEARCH
Thursday, June 2, 2016, 10:45 – 11:15 AM
Ranillo R. G. Resuello1, Joel V. Tuplano1, Hercules P. Baldos1, Maria Cristina Aurea G. Garcia2 and Ruel A. Briones2
1 Simian Conservation Breeding and Research Center (SICONBREC), Makati City, Philippines
2 College of Dentistry, Manila Central University, Caloocan City, Philippines
Periodontitis is a prevalent chronic oral disease that affects nearly half of adults in the U.S.A. and the U.K. and perhaps worldwide. The disease is driven by exaggerated inflammation induced by dysbiotic microbial communitiesforming on subgingival tooth sites and can lead to tooth loss and impaired mastication and nutritional status. Periodontal disease is continuously increasing here in the Philippines with 48.5% based on the latest National Monitoring Evaluation of Dental Survey. Highest in 35-44 years age group with 72.88% indicating that there is a need for further research to address the current oral problem. Promising therapies for periodontitis is best to evaluate its efficacy and clinical potential in discriminating large animal specifically nonhuman primates because they present similar characteristics of human anatomy and periodontal disease. The histological manifestation of spontaneous gingivitis and periodontitis in nonhuman primates are almost the same to those of humans. Characteristic features are progressive rete ridge formation, ulceration, apical migration of the pocket epithelium with wide intercellular spaces and immigrating polymorphonuclear cells, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells in connective tissues, vascular proliferation, destruction of collagen fibers and resorption of alveolar bone. Nonhuman primates have the advantage of possessing a close anatomical relationship to humans but they are difficult to handle and have a low prevalence of natural periodontal disease. A preliminary screening conducted among adult monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) at SIONBREC facility showed a 3.25% prevalence rate for chronic periodontitis. The selection criteria are the presence of at least 30% of sites with probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level ≥ 4 mm, associated with bleeding on probing, and radiographic evidence of bone loss (using a digital X-ray dental system; Vatech). The clinicalperiodontal examinations, dental X-rays, collection of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), andperiodontal tissue biopsies were performed in a manner similar to a human clinical study, except thatthe animals were anesthetized during the procedures.